Medieval fluidities

The moderns distinguish quite well between image and text. A possible area of overlap between the two may be typographical … More


Stealing? Appropriating? Paying tribute? Plagiarism has meant different things to different people at different times. Homer’s epic poems, like most … More


I’ve always found it fascinating that the intricate points of grammar that not even native speakers can fully master actually … More

Thinking and out-thinking

A recent business education ad noted that ‘there is no great though leader who can out-think the internet’. And OpenAI’s … More

Somersaults and leaps

The medieval manuscript page is the embodiment of a culture anxious about its own becoming. Nothing in a medieval parchment … More

Easier or better

Languages with high levels of heterography, the discrepency between how words are spelled and how they are pronounced, suffer the … More


Learning is a universal human project. Whether orally or through writing, we are all learning all the time, even when … More


The world is full of books. That is to say, full of copies. Whether printed or made by hand, what … More

All words are not equal

Words may have been born free, but they are everywhere in chains, subject to the rules of language. They don’t … More

A slip of the pen

To err is human. But some are more human than others. Especially scribes. Writing in the age of scribes and … More